Sunday, September 25, 2022


Bird Banding Builds a Healthier World

By Peter McKenzie-Brown

If you live in southern Canada, from the Atlantic provinces to the prairies, you have surely seen a Ruby-throated Hummingbird. Beautiful but solitary, these tiny birds breed in the north of the continent. But think about what they do during migration.

    In fall, they fly south through the US. Many stop when they reach the Gulf of Mexico, but not all

. Almost incredibly, they fly across the Gulf of Mexico to the Yucatan peninsula – an 800 km, non-stop flight that would seem to require more calories than their three-gram body weight could provide. Though born in Canada, say, they make the same beelines to their winter homes. They may even return to the same garden, year after year. We know that because of bird banding.

    I’ve been a birder for years. The hobby lures us into the natural world to watch species often of extraordinary beauty and splendid song. Besides birding as a hobby, in recent years, I have served as bird-banding assistant to my friend Bill Taylor. Bill is a certified bander, and on trips into rural Alberta I am often his helper. We are among the hundreds of volunteers who help band beautiful Mountain Bluebirds and Tree Swallows at breeding sites in the Alberta foothills.

    Dramatic reductions in the populations of bird species because of changes in predation, farming, and forestry practices are the backstory to our banding activity. In Alberta, bird-loss led to the development of “Bluebird trails” – volunteer-built nesting boxes placed at intervals along highways and byways to provide safe breeding sites for the Bluebirds. Opportunistic Tree Swallows face less risk, but acquired a liking for these boxes. The result? Ironically, on our Bluebird Trail we mostly band Tree Swallows – keeping comparable records for each species: nesting successes, nestlings banded, age and gender of the chicks. When we capture adults, we band them, too.

    Our efforts are a miniscule part of a global effort to understand and assist our avian friends. We attach bands on the young birds’ legs just before they are about to leave their nest box. If anyone recaptures a banded bird, or finds a band on their legs after they die, that band provides information on how to report the date, time, and place. This information helps the ornithological community better understand migration patterns and changes in behaviour over well-defined periods.

Banding is a logical continuation of birdwatching. Taken together, they enhance the simple reality that people need nature to be happy – and little in nature is lovelier than birds and birdsong in the wild. Banding practices around the world help our avian friends, but only because of the vast international machine in which each bander is a tiny, tiny cog.

    Banding requires armies of volunteers – the heartbeat of “citizen science.” In Canada, 27 primary sites track birds during spring and fall migration, using both observation and banding techniques. Licensed banders and countless volunteers show up before dawn during migration, capturing specimens in fine-meshed “mist nets” set up for the occasion.

Natural Resources. For the nations of the Americas, birds are a shared resource. The U.S. and Canada coordinate their banding work through the North American Bird Banding Program, which links the Canadian Wildlife Service Bird Banding Office with America’s labs. These organizations cooperate closely – especially on species that migrate within and through North America. However, bird banding takes place across the world, and both Canada and the US collaborate with other countries. Over the course of a normal year, 914 species of wild bird occur naturally north of the US/Mexican border. Of these, 426 species reside in Canada for part or all the year. But let’s go back to the beginning.

    In North America, John James Audubon and Ernest Thompson Seton were pioneers in bird tracking, although their methods of marking birds were primitive. To determine whether the same bird would return to his farm, in 1805 Audubon tried tying silver threads onto the legs of young Eastern Phoebes. His interest grew, and he began exercising his considerably intellect and artistic talent to write and design the New World’s most famous bird book, The Birds of America, in 1839. Later to the game, in Canada bird marking seems to have begun in 1882, when Seton marked Snow Buntings caught on his Manitoba farm – with ink! – to see whether they would return the following year.

    Banding proper, however, dates to 1899. In that year Danish schoolteacher Hans Christian Cornelius Mortensen started using aluminum rings on European starlings. Within two decades, banding had spread across western Europe and had begun in Canada. Federal programs began in the U.S. (1920) and Canada (1923) pursuant to the 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty agreed between the two countries. Sadly, that treaty reflected the then-recent extinction of the Passenger Pigeon. Indigenous to this continent, these birds may have numbered seven billion when Europeans began to settle. By 1900, they were virtually extinct. In 1914 Martha, the last of her species, died in the Cincinnati Zoo.

Banding on a Big Scale. In recent years, the use of mist nets has enabled banding to take place on a big scale. These nets date back to 17th century Japan, according to an academic article in a 1982 issue of the North American Bird Bander. Today’s birders would abhor their purpose: to catch birds for food. The technique arrived in North America after WWII, after which birders around the world began using them as a critical banding tool. Ornithologists and their supporters set up these nets during critical migration times along key migration routes. An example is Ontario’s Long Point Observatory on Lake Erie, which began banding during migration in 1960. It banded its millionth bird only 17 years later.

The long records of the bird banding community are vital to understanding changes in avian populations and species movement in a rapidly changing world.

    The banding equipment needed depends on the species of bird in question. One must decide what species of bird to focus on. Many of the supplies used during an operation are determined by how big a bird is. The essential equipment includes a bird identification guide, mist nets or other trapping devices, and banding pliers. A leg gauge, wing ruler, and a digital scale can also be useful.

    Thanks to the work of the banding armies, ornithologists long ago established that migratory birds need intact habitats to survive. A few years ago, the Audubon Society published Survival by Degrees, a report showing that 64 per cent (389) of North American bird species risked extinction from climate change, industrial development and other factors. A gloomy report to a large degree, it said immediate, determined action could improve the odds for three quarters of the species in danger.

How does banding protect birds? Banders they record the location, date, species, gender, estimated age, and other features of those banded, then send that data to their national banding authority. To ensure the birds’ well-being, trained volunteers and researchers undertake the capture and banding. North America’s banding authorities work with the North American Banding Council, which develops banding materials and addresses safety regulations.

    People who see or catch a banded bird report that information back to the lab, which keeps records of all reported encounters. Laboratory staffers manage more than seventy-seven million archived banding records and another 5 million bird encounter reports. Annually, the organization processes about 1.2 million banding records and 100,000 encounter reports.

    Through banding research, scientists can learn a bird’s routines – where and how it spends its day, its migration patterns, what it eats, and the habitat it needs to feed and procreate. This information helps identify priority areas for conservation.

    Banding data can reveal other trends in life span and population. If there is a change in the age of birds caught at a certain location, life expectancy may be getting shorter or longer. The number of birds captured may indicate whether populations are increasing or in decline. Data such as weight and wingspan can show health trends. Such insight can cue scientists to look for changes to birds’ food sources, predators, competitors, habitats, and other factors that affect their survival and reproduction. Sampling wild birds for Lyme Disease and Avian Influenza can help determine these diseases’ prevalence and risk, and which human and animal communities are at risk of exposure.

    As we have seen, banding is by no means a recent practice. Two years ago, the US Geological Survey wrote a celebratory article about banding’s first century in North America. Birders are among the multitudes aware that most birds bring joy merely by their presence – from their bold colours and majestic songs to their grace as they flap or glide through the sky. But they contribute more than beauty. Many plants depend on hummingbirds and other species to pollinate them. Hawks and owls target rodents and other pests. Fruit- and grain-eating birds help spread the seeds of the plants they consume.

    Bird researchers sometimes add additional markers to identify individuals in the field without the need to recapture them. Bands for large birds sometimes use colour and alphanumeric code combinations readable from a distance with binoculars or spotting scopes. The markers used depend on the type of bird, its behaviour and the information needed, and must avoid impeding movement. Banders follow strict protocols to virtually eliminate harm or hindrance to the species carrying them.

    Although banders typically clip a small metal band with a unique number on the bird’s leg, larger birds may carry other markers. These include neck collars for geese and swans, readable from a distance with binoculars or a spotting scope. Wing markers on vultures, eagles, swans, ravens, crows, or herons are often visible while the birds are in flight or perched. Similarly, leg flags on shorebirds stick out from the upper leg with a code readable from a distance.

Regulation: As a scientific technique, banding requires expertise and skill usually gained through study and field experience. To participate in banding activities, you must apply for a permit. Professionals with banding permits include ornithologists, biologists, and wildlife technicians. Others are keen birders who just want to help.

    Permits for banding in Canada come from the  Canadian Bird Banding Office in Ottawa, which operates closely with America’s Bird Banding Laboratory. However, to get maximum value for this work banding programmes rely on the public to report their observations or recoveries of bird bands and other bird markers. The data these reports provide help scientists and researchers understand, monitor and conserve migratory birds. Banding data also track and publish species longevity records.

    The presence or absence of birds can be signs of habitat loss, or stress patterns affecting ecosystems. Put another way, banding and its related technologies developed as tools of ornithology research into avian conservation science.

    Banding data do indeed reveal vital developments: whether populations are increasing or in decline. Health data Illustrate trends and worries in respect to food sources, predation, competition, and habitat. Sampling wild birds for such bird-borne disorders as Lyme disease and avian influenza can provide a sense of these diseases’ prevalence, since the migration routes of infected species help identify which human and animal communities are at risk of exposure. In toxicology research, banding data can also show birds’ potential exposure to chemical contaminants, for example.

    How to sum up? One of the great pleasures of birding is that it lures us into the natural world. Because it promotes practices that enable species better to survive, banding contributes to a healthier world.

Wednesday, July 20, 2022

My Species List


Avocet, American
Barbet, Coppersmith; Thailand
Bee-eater, Blue-throated; Thailand
Bee-eater, Chestnut-headed; Thailand
Bee-eater, Green; Thailand
Bittern, American; New Brunswick
Bittern, Cinnamon; Burma
Blackbird, Brewer’s
Blackbird, Brewer’s; Alberta
Blackbird, Common; England/Ireland
Blackbird, Red-winged
Blackbird, Red-winged; Alberta
Blackbird, Rusty
Blackbird, Yellow-headed; Alberta
Bluebird, Asian Fairy; Thailand
Bluebird, Mountain
Bobolink; Alberta
Bulbul, Black; Thailand
Bulbul, Black-crested; Thailand
Bulbul, Flavescent; Thailand
Bulbul, Mountain; Thailand
Bulbul, Red-whiskered; Thailand
Bulbul, Sooty-headed; Thailand
Bulbul, Streak-eared; Thailand
Bulbul, Yellow-vented; Thailand
Bullfinch; England/Ireland
Bunting, Reed; Ireland
Bushchat, Grey; Thailand
Bushchat, Indochinese; Thailand
Bushchat, Pied; Thailand
Bush-Robin, Orange-flanked; Thailand
Buttonquail, Barred; Thailand
Buzzard, Common; England/Thailand
Buzzard, Turkey; BC
Canvasback; North America
Catbird, Grey; Alberta
Chaffinch; England/Ireland
Chickadee, Black-capped
Chickadee, Boreal; Alberta, BC
Chickadee, Mountain; Alberta
Cisticola, Zitting; Thailand
Coot, American; Alberta, BC
Coot, Common; England/Ireland     
Cormorant, Double-crested; Alberta
Cormorant, Indian; Burma
Cormorant, Little; Burma
Cormorant, Pelagic; BC
Cormorant; England/Ireland/Alberta
Coucal, Greater; Thailand
Coucal, Lesser; Thailand
Cowbird Brown-headed; Alberta
Cowbird, Bronzed; North America
Cowbird, Brown-headed
Crane, Sandhill; BC
Crane, Whooping; Alberta
Creeper, Brown; Alberta
Crossbill, White-winged; Alberta
Crow, American; Alberta
Crow, Carrion; England/Ireland        
Crow, Hooded; England/Ireland      
Crow, Northwestern; BC
Cuckooshrike, Indochinese; Thailand
Curlew, UK
Dipper, American; Alberta
Dove, Emerald; Thailand
Dove, Eurasian Collared; Ireland      
Dove, Little Cuckoo; Thailand
Dove, Mourning; North America     
Dove, Peaceful; Thailand
Dove, Red-collared; Thailand
Dove, Rock; North America
Dove, Spotted; Thailand
Dowitcher, Long-Billed; Alberta
Dowitcher, Short-tailed
Drongo, Black; Thailand
Drongo, Bronzed; Thailand
Drongo, Greater Racket-tailed; Thailand
Drongo, Hair-crested; Thailand
Drongo, Lesser Racket-Tailed; Thailand
Duck, American Black; North America
Duck, Canvasback
Duck, Harlequin; Alberta
Duck, Lesser Whistling; Thailand
Duck, Long-tailed; Alberta
Duck, Redhead
Duck, Ring-necked; New Brunswick
Duck, Ruddy; Western Canada
Duck, Tufted; England/Ireland
Duck, Wood; Alberta
Dunlin; UK
Dunnock; Ireland
Eagle, Bald; Alberta
Eagle, Golden; BC
Egret, Cattle; Burma
Egret, Intermediate; Burma
Egret, Little; Thailand
Eider; England/Ireland
Falcon, Peregrine; Alberta
Falcon, Prairie; Alberta
Falcon, White-rumped; Thailand
Fantail, Pied; Thailand
Fantail, White-throated; Thailand
Fantail, Yellow-bellied; Thailand
Finch, Blue; England/Ireland
Finch, Brown-capped Rosy
Finch, Cassin’s; BC
Finch, House
Finch, Purple; BC
Flameback, Common; Thailand
Flicker, Northern; Alberta
Flicker, Red-shafted Northern
Flicker, Yellow-shafted Northern
Flowerpecker, Scarlet-backed; Thailand
Flycatcher, Blue; Thailand
Flycatcher, Least; Alberta
Flycatcher, Little Pied; Burma
Flycatcher, Olive-sided
Flycatcher, Red-throated; Thailand
Flycatcher, Slaty-backed; Thailand
Flycatcher, Snowy-browed; Burma
Flycatcher-Shrike, Bar-winged; Thailand
Forktail, Slaty-backed; Thailand
Forktail, White-crowned; Thailand
Francolin, Chinese; Thailand
Fulvetta, Grey-cheeked; Thailand
Fulvetta, Rufous-winged; Thailand
Gadwall; Alberta
Godwit, Black-tailed; England/Ireland
Godwit, Marbled; Alberta
Goldeneye, Barrow’s; North America
Goldeneye, Common; Alberta
Goldfinch, American; Alberta
Goose, Canada; North America
Goose, Greater White-fronted; BC
Goose, Snow; North America
Grackle, Common; Alberta
Grebe, Eared; Alberta
Grebe, Little; Ireland/Thailand
Grebe, Pied-billed; Alberta/Ireland
Grebe, Red-necked; Alberta
Grebe, Red-throated; Alberta
Grebe, Western; Alberta
Greenfinch; England/Ireland
Grosbeak, Black-headed; Alberta
Grosbeak, Evening; Alberta, N.B.
Grosbeak, Yellow; Alberta
Grouse, Ruffed; Alberta
Grouse, Sage; North America
Grouse, Sharp-tailed; Alberta
Grouse, Spruce; BC
Gull Brown-headed; Burma
Gull, Black-headed; England/Ireland
Gull, Bonaparte’s; Alberta
Gull, California; Alberta
Gull, Common (Mew Gull); Ireland
Gull, Franklin’s; Alberta
Gull, Herring; North America
Gull, Lesser Black-backed; Ireland
Gull, Ring-billed; Alberta
Gull, Western; BC
Gyrfalcon; Alberta
Harrier, Northern; Alberta
Hawk, Broad-winged
Hawk, Cooper’s
Hawk, Ferruginous; Alberta
Hawk, Lutistic Red-Tailed
Hawk, Red-Tailed; Alberta
Hawk, Rough-legged; Alberta
Hawk, Sharp-shinned
Hawk, Swainson’s; Alberta
Hawk-Eagle, Changeable; Thailand
Heron, Black-crowned; Alberta
Heron, Great Blue; Alberta
Heron, Grey; England/Ireland
Heron, Indian Pond; Burma
Heron, Little; Thailand
Hobby, Eurasian; Thailand
Honey-buzzard, Oriental; Thailand
Hummingbird, Black-chinned; BC
Hummingbird, Calliope; BC
Hummingbird, Rufous; BC
Ibis, White-faced; Alberta
Jacana, Bronze-winged; Thailand
Jackdaw; England/Ireland
Jay (Eurasian); England/Ireland
Jay, Blue; Alberta
Jay, Canada; Alberta
Jay, Steller’s; BC
Junco, Dark-eyed; Alberta
Junglefowl, Red; Thailand
Kestrel, American; Alberta
Kestrel; England/Ireland
Killdeer; Alberta
Kingbird, Eastern
Kingbird, Eastern; Alberta
Kingbird, Western; Alberta
Kingfisher, Belted; Alberta
Kingfisher, Black-capped; Thailand
Kingfisher, Blyth’s; Thailand
Kingfisher, White-throated; Thailand
Kite, Black; Burma
Lapwing, Northern; England/Ireland
Lapwing, Red-wattled; Thailand
Lapwing, River; Burma
Lapwing; England/Ireland
Lark, Horned; Alberta
Laughing-thrush, Chestnut-crowned; Thailand
Longspur, Chestnut-collared; Alberta
Loon, Common; Alberta
Magpie, Black-billed; Alberta
Magpie, Red-billed Blue; Burma
Magpie-Robin, Oriental; Thailand
Malkoha, Green-billed; Thailand
Mallard; North America
Martin, Common; Ireland
Martin, Dusky Crag; Thailand
Martin, Plain; Thailand
Martin, Purple; Alberta
Martin, Sand; Thailand
Meadowlark, Eastern; Alberta
Meadowlark, Western; Alberta
Merganser, Common; North America
Merganser, Hooded; Alberta
Merganser, Red-breasted; Alberta
Merlin; Alberta
Minivet, Scarlet; Thailand
Mockingbird, Northern; Alberta
Moorhen, Common; Thailand, Europe
Munia, Black-headed; Thailand
Munia, Chestnut-tailed; Thailand
Munia, Scaley-breasted; Thailand
Munia, White-rumped; Thailand
Myna, Common; Thailand
Myna, Golden-crested; Thailand
Myna, Hill; Thailand
Myna, White Vented; Thailand
Night-heron, Black-crowned; Alberta
Nutcracker, Clark’s; North America
Nuthatch, Chestnut-bellied; Thailand
Nuthatch, Red-breasted; Alberta
Nuthatch, White-breasted; Alberta
Openbill, Asian; Thailand
Oriole, Baltimore
Oriole, Baltimore; Alberta
Oriole, Bullock's; Alberta
Osprey; Alberta
Owl, Barn; Thailand, Alberta
Owl, Brown Wood; Thailand
Owl, Great Grey
Owl, Great Horned; North America
Owl, Long-eared; Ireland
Owl, Northern Pygmy; North America
Owl, Northern Saw-whet
Owl, Oriental Scops; Thailand
Owl, Short-eared; Alberta
Owlet, Asian Barred; Thailand
Partridge, Gray; UK/Ireland/Canada
Partridge, Rufous-throated; Thailand
Peacock; Alberta
Peewee, Western Wood
Pelican, American White; Alberta
Pewee, Western Wood; Alberta
Phalarope, Red-necked; Alberta
Phalarope, Wilson’s; Alberta
Pheasant, Common; England/Ireland
Pheasant, Ring-necked; North America
Phoebe, Eastern; New Brunswick
Pigeon, Common Wood England/Ireland
Pigeon, Rock (Feral Pigeon)
Pintail, Northern; Alberta
Pipit, Meadow; Ireland
Pipit, Paddyfield; Thailand
Plover, Black-bellied; Alberta
Plover, Mountain; Alberta
Plover, Semipalmated; Alberta
Pochard, Common; Ireland
Pond Heron, Chinese; Thailand
Prinia, Grey-Breasted; Thailand
Prinia, Plain; Thailand
Prinia, Yellow-bellied; Thailand
Quail, California; BC, Alberta
Quail, Franklin’s; North America
Raven, Common; Alberta
Redhead; Alberta
Redpoll, Common; Alberta
Redshank; Burma
Redstart, American
Robin, American; Alberta
Robin, European; England/Ireland
Robin, White-tailed; Thailand
Rock Dove, Feral; Ireland/North America
Rock Thrush, Chestnut-bellied; Thailand
Roller, Indian; Thailand
Rook; England/Ireland         
Rosy-Finch, Grey-crowned; BC
Sanderling; Alberta
Sandpiper, Baird’s; Alberta
Sandpiper, Common; England/Ireland
Sandpiper, Green; England/Ireland
Sandpiper, Pectoral; Alberta
Sandpiper, Semipalmated; Alberta
Sandpiper, Solitary; Alberta
Sandpiper, Spotted; Alberta
Sandpiper, Stilt; Alberta
Sandpiper, Western; BC
Sapsucker, Red-breasted
Sapsucker, Red-naped; Alberta
Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied
Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied; Alberta
Scaup, Greater; Alberta, BC
Scaup, Lesser; Alberta
Scimitar Babbler, White-browed; SE Asia
Scoter, Surf; BC
Serpent-Eagle, Crested; Thailand
Shama, White-rumped; Thailand
Shearwater, Flesh-Footed; BC
Shearwater, New Zealand; BC
Shearwater, Sooty; BC
Shelduck, Common; England/Ireland
Shelduck, Ruddy; Burma
Shortwing, White-browed; Thailand
Shoveler, Northern; Alberta
Shoveler; England/Ireland
Shrike, Brown; Thailand
Shrike, Burmese; Thailand
Shrike, Long-tailed; Thailand
Shrike, Northern; Alberta
Sibia, Dark-backed; Thailand
Sibia, Rufous-backed; Thailand
Sisken, Eurasian; Ireland
Sisken, Pine; Alberta
Snipe, Common; North America
Solitaire, Townsend's; Alberta
Sora; Alberta
Sparrow, American Tree; North America
Sparrow, Black-chinned; North America
Sparrow, Brewer’s; Alberta
Sparrow, Chipping; Alberta
Sparrow, Clay-coloured; Alberta
Sparrow, Eurasian Tree; Thailand
Sparrow, Fox; BC
Sparrow, Gold-crowned; BC
Sparrow, House; North America, Burma
Sparrow, LeConte’s; Alberta
Sparrow, Lincoln’s; Alberta
Sparrow, Nelson’s Sharp-Tailed; Alberta
Sparrow, Plain-backed; Thailand
Sparrow, Savannah; Alberta
Sparrow, Song; Alberta       
Sparrow, Tree; Thailand
Sparrow, Vesper; Alberta
Sparrow, White-crowned; Alberta
Sparrow, White-throated; Alberta
Spiderhunter, Little; Thailand
Starling, Black-collared; Thailand
Starling, Chestnut-tailed; Thailand
Starling, European; Alberta
Stilt, Black-necked; Alberta
Stilt, Black-winged; Thailand
Stonechat, Common; Thailand, Ireland
Sunbird, Crimson; Thailand
Sunbird, Green-tailed; Thailand
Sunbird, Mrs. Gould’s; Thailand
Sunbird, Olive-backed; Thailand
Sunbird, Purple; Thailand
Sunbird, Ruby-cheeked; Thailand
Swallow, Bank; Alberta
Swallow, Barn; Alberta, Thailand
Swallow, Cliff; Alberta
Swallow, Common; England/Ireland
Swallow, Red-rumped; Thailand
Swallow, Tree; Alberta
Swallow, Violet-Green; Alberta, BC
Swan, Mute; England/Ireland/N.B.
Swan, Trumpeter; Alberta
Swan, Tundra; Alberta
Swift, Asian Palm; Thailand
Swift, House; Thailand
Tailorbird, Common; Thailand
Tanager, Western; Alberta
Teal, Blue-winged; North America
Teal, Cinnamon; Alberta
Teal, Green-winged; Alberta
Tern, Black; Alberta
Tern, Common; Alberta/Thailand
Tern, Forster’s; Alberta
Thrasher, Brown; Alberta
Thrush, Blue Whistling; Thailand
Thrush, Dusky; Thailand
Thrush, Hermit; BC
Thrush, Mistle; England/Ireland
Thrush, Swainson’s
Thrush, Varied; Alberta
Thrush, Wood; North America
Tit, Coal; England/Ireland
Tit, Crested; England/Ireland
Tit, European Blue; England/Ireland
Tit, Great; England/Ireland
Tit, Long-Tailed; England/Ireland
Tit, Yellow-cheeked; Thailand
Towhee, Spotted; BC
Treepie, Grey; Thailand
Treepie, Racket-tailed; Thailand
Treepie, Rufous; Thailand
Vireo, Philadelphia
Vulture, Common; England
Vulture, Turkey; Alberta, BC
Wagtail, Citrine; Burma
Wagtail, Gray; Thailand
Wagtail, Pied; England/Ireland
Wagtail, White; Thailand
Wagtail, Yellow; Thailand
Warbler, Blackpoll; Alberta
Warbler, Blyth’s Leaf; Thailand
Warbler, Palm; Alberta
Warbler, Radde’s; Thailand
Warbler, Tennessee; Alberta
Warbler, Two-barred; Thailand
Warbler, Willow; Ireland
Warbler, Wilson’s; Alberta
Warbler, Yellow; Alberta, N.B.
Warbler, Yellow-browed; Thailand
Warbler, Yellow-rumped; Alberta
Waterhen, White-breasted; Thailand
Waterthrush, Northern
Waxwing, Bohemian; Alberta
Waxwing, Cedar; Alberta, N.B.
Weaver, Baya; Thailand
Wigeon, American; Alberta
Wigeon, Eurasian; Alberta
Willet; Alberta
Woodpecker, Black-backed; Alberta
Woodpecker, Downy; Alberta
Woodpecker, Hairy
Woodpecker, Lewis’s; BC
Woodpecker, Pileated; Alberta
Wren, House; Alberta
Yellowlegs, Greater
Yellowlegs, Lesser


Bat, Big Brown
Bat, Hoary
Bear, Plains Grizzly
Beaver, North American
Cottontail, Nuttall’s
Deer, Mule
Deer, White-tailed
Elk (Wapiti)
Fox, Red
Fox, Swift
Goat, Mountain
Gopher, Northern Pocket
Marmot, Yellow-bellied
Mink, American
Mountain Lion (Cougar)
Muskrat, Long-Tailed
Sheep, Rocky Mountain Bighorn
Shrew, Dusky
Shrew, Masked
Shrew, Prairie
Skunk, Striped
Squirrel, Richardson’s Ground (“Gopher”)
Squirrel, Thirteen-lined Ground
Squirrel, Grey
Squirrel, Red
Squirrel, Black
Vole, Long-tailed
Vole, Meadow (“Field Mouse”)
Vole, Sagebrush
Weasel, Least
Weasel, Long-tailed
Wolf, Gray
Wood Rat, Bushy-tailed


Snake, Bull
Snake, Plains Garter
Rattlesnake, Prairie
Snake, Wandering Garter


Frog, Boreal Chorus
Frog, Northern Leopard
Salamander, Barred Tiger
Toad, Canadian
Toad, Plains Spadefoot


Monarch butterfly
Humungous Ant Nest (Fish Creek Park)